擬似考古学者Ron Wyattの聖書にまつわる発見

Answers in Genesisは1999年に発行雑誌Creation Magazineに掲載された記事「 Has the Ark of the Covenant been found? And Noah’s Ark? Pharaoh’s drowned army? What about the Garden of Eden? (契約の櫃は見つかったか?そして、ノアの箱舟?海に沈んだファラオの軍?エデンの園はどうか?)」で、擬似考古学者Ron Wyattの発見を斬っている。

The non-Ark site(箱舟ではない現地)

Well-known creationist geophysicist Dr John Baumgardner, a scientist at Los Alamos Laboratories respected for his work on plate tectonics. He is known for his strong stand on the truth of Genesis. He researched the ‘Ark-site’ with Wyatt and eventually concluded the claims were ‘bogus.’

有名な創造論者である地球物理学者Dr. John Baumgardnerはロスアラモス研究所の科学者であり、プレートテクトニクスに関する研究で高く評価されている。彼は創世記の真実に関する彼の強い姿勢で知られている。彼はWyattと"箱舟"の現地を調査して、結局その主要は"偽"であると結論した。

Back in 1992, Wyatt’s ‘Noah’s Ark’ claim (see This is not the Ark of Noah) was subject to a thorough investigative exposé in this magazine (see online version). The 13-page report told of how this ministry had checked the claims, even ringing the lab staff that had done the analyses, for instance. Sadly, though we would have been delighted if this really were the Ark, we found almost all the specific claims to be untrue and/or misleading.

1992年にWyattがノアの箱舟だという主張にたいする詳細な調査結果を本誌[Creation Magazine)で公開した。13ページのレポートでは、AiGがその主張を、たとえば分析を行った研究所のスタッフに電話をするなど、どのように調べたかを書いている。残念ながら、我々もこれが本当に箱舟ならうれしいのだが、大半の主張が偽りもしくはミスリーディングだとわかった。

The results of detailed analysis of this site, including mapping, magnetometer surveys, drill-core sampling, and more, enable any geologist to be able to diagnose with certainty the exact nature of this geological object.


The ‘discoverers’ have since produced a rebuttal, convincing only to those who have misunderstood or not carefully read our article. They quote as support the well-known creationist scientist Dr John Baumgardner (right), but in fact he long ago decided that this ‘find’ was a geological formation. They also appeal to the late marine engineer David Fasold. Fasold, who had repeatedly rejected biblical authority, did originally think it was a boat, but towards his life’s end co-authored an article in a geology journal supporting its true nature.

"発見者"たちはその後に反論したが、それは我々の記事を誤読したか、慎重に読まなかった者たちだけを納得させる程度のものだった。彼らは主張の補強に有名な創造論者である科学者Dr.John Baumgardnerを引用したが、実際には、それよりはるか前に彼はこの発見物を地質学的に形成されたものだと判断していた。彼らはまた最近の海洋技術者David Fasoldにもアピールした。Fasoldは繰り返し聖書の権威を拒絶しているが、はじめは舟だと考えていた。しかし、年を経て、それの真の性質を示威する記事を地質学雑誌に執筆した。

D.F. Fasold, ‘Bogus “Noah’s Ark” from Turkey exposed as a common geologic structure,’ Journal of Geoscience Education 44:439–444, 1996

When questioned about Baumgardner’s retraction, Wyatt has claimed that it was made for fear of losing his job. Yet Baumgardner has been known as a ‘full-on’ creationist in his job and community for years, and had no difficulty agreeing to our publishing an interview with him in 1997. At that time, he told us that Wyatt’s claims about himself were as ‘bogus’ as Wyatt’s claims about the ‘Ark site.’9


Sodom and Gomorrah? (ソドムとゴモラ)

Answers in Genesis did not attempt to involve itself in checking any of the other claims, but someone who had been with Wyatt to his ‘Sodom and Gomorrah’ site sent us samples he had from there of the alleged ash from a couple of the ‘buildings,’ and a sulfur ball. The photos show the structures at ‘Sodom and Gomorrah,’ together with the labels put on them by Wyatt. Simple visual inspection of such photos (and watching videos put out by these ‘amazing discoverers’) strongly suggests that these ‘building ruins’ are soft sedimentary structures with some lamination, carved into an array of shapes by rain and wind.


To put it mildly, the claim that such structures would form from incinerated buildings, then survive in the open for thousands of years, defies understanding of basic scientific principles (not to mention common sense).


Nevertheless, we sent the samples for chemical analysis to a reputable Australian laboratory[Amdel Laboratories Ltd.]. Their report was interpreted by a Ph.D. geochemist[Dr Clyde Webster, of the Adventist Geoscience Research Institute in the US.]. The existence of the sulfur ball is not surprising—the entire area is rich in natural sulfur. The results from the ‘ash’ (see chart below, right) were not consistent with what would be expected from incinerated ancient buildings, or rock ash of any sort. Instead, they clearly indicated an [evaporite] deposit of gypsum-type minerals. This crumbly, easily eroded material fully explains the visual impressions, and is consistent with the known features of this area. The chemistry also shows an abundance of carbonates, which would be broken down by heat.[This is the principle on which many dry powder fire extinguishers work. The heated carbonate releases CO2, smothering the fire.]

しかしながら、我々は化学分析のために、評価の高いオーストラリアの研究所[Amdel Laboratories Ltd.]へサンプルを送った。彼らのレポートは学位を持つ地球化学者[米国のAdventist Geoscience Research Institute(訳注:創造科学の研究組織であり、普通の地質調査屋ではない)のDr. Clyde Webster]が解釈した。硫黄ボールがあることは驚くべきことではない。このあたりは自然の硫黄が豊富だからだ。"灰"の分析結果は燃えた古代の建物や何らかの岩の灰から期待されるようなものではなかった。明らかに、石膏系鉱物の蒸発残留堆積物を示していた。このもろい、浸蝕されやすい鉱物は、見かけの印象をよく説明し、この地域の良く知られた特徴とも合致する。科学的にも豊富な炭酸塩を示しているが、それは熱で壊れやすい[これは多くの粉末式消火器の原理だ。熱せられた炭酸塩はCO2を放出し、消火する]。

The remnants of Sodom and Gomorrah?(ソドムとゴモラの残骸)

The ‘discoverers’ featured in our article have persuaded a number of people unfamiliar with basic geology that the larger picture at left is the city of Gomorrah, above middle is a ‘ziggurat,’ and the right image a ‘sphinx.’ However, the truth is less spectacular. In this Dead Sea area (near Masada), there are many soft, evaporite deposits like this, which can easily be shaped by the action of wind and rain. Not only has on-site geological analysis shown this to be the case—lab testing of alleged ‘ash’ samples (see below) definitively confirms that these are not ‘burnt buildings’ (see main text).


Mineral Sample 1 Sample 2
Gypsum (石膏) 5 99
Sulfur (硫黄)
Aragonite (霰石) 60
Calcite (方解石) 3
Dolomite (ドロマイト) 1
Quartz (石英) 3 0.5
Plagioclase (斜長石) 1
K-feldspar (K-長石) 1
Unidentified clay (不特定粘土) 25
Halite (岩塩) 1
TOTAL (合計) 100 100

Amazing claims(驚くべき主張)

Ron Wyatt has claimed, among other things, to have discovered the following:(Ron Wyattは特に以下を発見したと主張した)

  • The Ark of the Covenant (契約の櫃)
  • Chariot wheels and other relics from Pharaoh’s drowned army at the bottom of the Red Sea.(紅海の海底で、海にのまれたファラオの軍の戦車の車輪やその他の遺物)
  • The real Sodom and Gomorrah, with building outlines still standing as piles of sulfur-fried ash. (建物の外形が硫黄と焼けた灰の山としてまだ残っている真のソドムとゴモラ)
  • Noah’s Ark (ノアの箱舟)
  • The real Mt Sinai (真のシナイ山)[原注: 現在、シナイと呼ばれる山は聖書の記述と合わない。長年にわたり少なくとも8つの場所が真のシナイ山だと主張されている]
  • The rock at Horeb.(ホレブの岩)[訳注: 出エジプト記17章6節で、モーセが杖でうつと水が出たという岩]
  • The true site of Korah’s earthquake.(コラー地震の真の場所)[訳注: 民数記 / 16章31~34節のこと]
こう語り終えるやいなや、彼らの足もとの大地が裂けた。 地は口を開き、彼らとコラの仲間たち、その持ち物一切を、家もろとも呑み込んだ。彼らと彼らに属するものはすべて、生きたまま、陰府へ落ち、地がそれを覆った。彼らはこうして、会衆の間から滅び去った。 彼らの周りにいた全イスラエルは、彼らの叫び声を聞いて、大地に呑み込まれることのないようにと言って逃げた。

  • Noah’s house, and the graves of Mr and Mrs Noah, together with millions worth of her jewelry (allegedly then stolen from Wyatt).(ノアの家、ノア夫妻の墓、ノアの妻の数百万の価値のある宝石、ただし発見後に盗まれたと主張)
  • The real site of the crucifixion, apparently above the cave containing the Ark of the Covenant, so that Christ’s blood would drip on to the Mercy Seat.(契約の櫃の置かれた洞窟の上にある磔の真の場所で、キリストの血が贖罪の座に滴り落ちた)
  • An actual sample of Christ’s blood, with chromosomes allegedly still visible under the microscope, showing that there was no human father. Placed in growth medium, the cells began dividing, says Ron. (顕微鏡で染色体が見えるキリストの血の実際のサンプルで、それは人間の父親が存在しないことを示す。培地に置かれた細胞は分裂を始めたとRonが言った。)
  • The tablets of the Ten Commandments, bound by golden hinges.(金のヒンジで綴じられた十戒のタブレット)

The Ark of the Covenant—could it even be found?(契約の櫃--それは見つかったのか)

The Wyatt/Gray ‘track record’ of false claims on other subjects (see main text) makes it easy to dismiss these current claimants to finding the Ark of the Covenant, along with all their ‘reasons’ as to why no one is conveniently allowed to access any hard evidence.


The Ark was probably lost or destroyed when the Babylonians sacked Jerusalem in 587 B.C. and destroyed the temple. If Jews had hidden it, the Ark would surely have been used in the Second Temple, which Josephus says it wasn’t (Jewish Wars 5:219).


An additional reason for skepticism, which would apply to any future such claims by others, relates to God’s dealings in fulfilling the Old Covenant system via the New Covenant in Christ. God forcefully demonstrated this with the destruction of the Jerusalem temple in AD 70, predicted by Christ four decades earlier (Matthew 24). There were to be no more animal sacrifices once His designated ‘Passover Lamb,’ the Lord Jesus Christ (John 1:29, Rev. 13:8), had been slain ‘once for all’ (Hebrews 10:10).

懐疑論のさらなる理由は、将来に他の誰かが行う主張に対しても適用できるが、それは旧約をキリストの新約を通じて実現することに関するものだ。神は西暦70年にエルサレム寺院の破壊によってこれを力で示した。このことをキリストは40年近く前に予言していた[マタイによる福音書24章]。主の任じた過ぎ越しの祭りの小羊たる主イエスキリスト[ヨハネによる福音書1章29節, ヨハネの黙示録13章8節]が、すべてのために一度殺されたことにより、もはや動物の生贄をささげることはなくなったのだ[ヘブライ人への手紙10章10節]。

イエスが神殿の境内を出て行かれると、弟子たちが近寄って来て、イエスに神殿の建物を指さした。 そこで、イエスは言われた。「これらすべての物を見ないのか。はっきり言っておく。一つの石もここで崩されずに他の石の上に残ることはない。」




Jeremiah 3:16 strongly suggests that there is to be no reappearance of the Ark of the Covenant, either: ‘And it shall come to pass, when ye be multiplied and increased in the land, in those days, saith the LORD, they shall say no more, The ark of the covenant of the LORD: neither shall it come to mind: neither shall they remember it; neither shall they visit it; neither shall that be done any more.’

エレミヤ書3章16節に、契約の櫃の再出現はないと強く示唆している。「あなたたちがこの地で大いに増えるとき、その日には、と主は言われる。人々はもはや、主の契約の櫃について語らず、心に浮かべることも、思い起こすこともない。求めることも、作ることももはやない。 」

AiGは真実であるかのように書いているが、マタイによる福音書に記された神殿崩壊の予言は、ユダヤ戦争の結果を知っている福音記者による 事後予言と解釈されている

なお、 ユダヤ戦記によれば 、1世紀にユダヤ人フラウィウス・ヨセフスによって書かれたユダヤ戦争の記録、全7巻。誇張が多い、著者の都合に合わせて事実をゆがめているなどの批判はあるものの、ユダヤ戦争の目撃者による貴重な記録であることに変わりはない。

Could the garden of Eden ever be found?(エデンの園は見つかったか)

The Bible says regarding the location of Eden: ‘And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads’ (Genesis 2:10). Two of these rivers are called Hiddekel (Tigris) and Perath (Euphrates).


This is why many Christians believe that the original garden was located somewhere in the Mesopotamian region (around present day Iraq) where the modern Tigris and Euphrates rivers flow. However, the Bible records a devastating worldwide Flood, many centuries after Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden. Sedimentary layers, sometimes miles thick, bear mute testimony to this massive watery upheaval which tore apart and buried forever the pre-Flood world.


After the Flood, the survivors moved to the plain of Shinar (Sumeria/Babylonia) which is where we find rivers today called Tigris and Euphrates. These are therefore clearly not the same rivers. They run on top of Flood-deposited layers of rock containing billions of dead things. They were probably named after the original pre-Flood rivers, just as settlers from the British Isles to North America and Australasia applied familiar names to many places in their ‘new world.’


Note also that the Bible speaks of one river breaking into four, only two of which were called Tigris and Euphrates. This is not what is found in the Middle East today.


The Garden’s actual location on the globe can never be established—maybe it was where we now find the middle of the Pacific Ocean!

エデンの園は見つかるわけがなく、Ron Wyattはいんちきである。しかし、それを強く押し出すと、聖書の否定ととられかねない。なので、聖書の記述も使ってのRon Wyatt否定をしたのだろうか。とはいえ、AiGの作文はなかなかいいと思う。

In Closing(終わりに)

There is little doubt that the genuine discovery of certain objects would be both exciting and a powerful witness to the truth of the biblical record. However, we need to be careful not to become like some medieval pilgrims, keen to have relics to supplement (or supplant) the worship of the living God. Christ actually taught that if people did not listen to ‘Moses and the prophets,’ then neither would something as spectacular as someone rising from the dead convince them (Luke 16).


No doubt such fanciful claims as discussed here will always be with us, made by those seeking either profit, fame, the fulfillment of some deep psychological needs, or any combination of these. The ‘discoverers’ will often appear completely sincere, saying all the ‘right Christian things.’ Perhaps at some point they have even persuaded themselves.


The Bible does not say we should ‘believe all things,’ but rather that we should ‘prove all things’ (1 Thessalonians 5:21). Neither does it encourage a gullible approach toward those claiming the name of Christ. Rather, it warns about wolves among the flock, and also teaches that the heart of man is deceitful and depraved (Jeremiah 17:9).

聖書は我々がすべてを信じなければならないとは言っていない。むしろ、すべてを証明すべきだといっている[テサロニケの信徒への第1の手紙5章21節: すべてを吟味して、良いものを大事にしなさい]。キリスト教徒の名を主張する者たちへ騙されやすいアプローチを奨めているわけではもない。むしろ、それは群れの間でオオカミについて警告して、人の心が欺瞞的で堕落していることを教える[エレミヤ書17章9節: 人の心は何にもまして、とらえ難く病んでいる。誰がそれを知りえようか]。

As in other areas, extraordinary claims carry an extraordinary burden of proof. There is already a huge amount of archaeological and other evidence consistent with the truth of the Bible. Bible-believing experts exist in many fields, such as the archaeologist author of our article on Jericho (The walls of Jericho). They are always glad to assess and publicize actual evidence of genuine finds (there have been many over the years) supporting the historicity of the Bible.