Claim CC201:
If evolution proceeds via the accumulation of small steps, we should see a smooth continuum of creatures across the fossil record. Instead, we see long periods where species do not change, and there are gaps between the changes.

Morris, Henry M., 1974. Scientific Creationism, Green Forest, AR: Master Books, pg. 78.
Johnson, Phillip E., 1990. Evolution as dogma: The establishment of naturalism. First Things no. 6, p. 15-22,

  1. 漸進的変化が化石記録を通して見られるはずだという考えは、漸進的系統進化(phyletic gradualism)と呼ばれる。それは以下の信条に基づく

    a. 新しい種は祖先の集団が変化した子孫の集団への移行することで出現する
    b. 移行は均一で緩慢である
    c. 移行には祖先の集団の大半が参加する
    d. 移行は祖先の種の地理的分布の大半で起きる


    [N]atural selection will generally act very slowly, only at long intervals of time, and only on a few of the inhabitants of the same region. I further believe that these slow, intermittent results accord well with what geology tells us of the rate and manner at which the inhabitants of the world have changed [Darwin 1872 140-141 chap. 4].

    "But I must here remark that I do not suppose that the process ever goes on so regularly as is represented in the diagram, though in itself made somewhat irregular, nor that it goes on continuously; it is far more probable that each form remains for long periods unaltered, and then again undergoes modification [Darwin 1872, 152].

    It is a more important consideration . . . that the period during which each species underwent modification, though long as measured by years, was probably short in comparison with that during which it remained without undergoing any change [Darwin 1872, 428, chap. 10].

    "it might require a long succession of ages to adapt an organism to some new and peculiar line of life, for instance, to fly through the air; and consequently that the transitional forms would often long remain confined to some one region; but that, when this adaptation had once been effected, and a few species had thus acquired a great advantage over other organisms, a comparatively short time would be necessary to produce many divergent forms, which would spread rapidly and widely throughout the world [Darwin 1872, 433].

  2. おそらく、そのすべてを説明できるわけではないが、浸蝕や化石保存に適さない期間などにより化石記録が不完全であるため、隙間がある。
  3. 幾つかの移行系列が存在し、それは変化率は一定ではないが、形態の漸進的連続性を示している。
  4. それでも化石記録は時間を経ての変化を多く示している。多くの隙間があると記述する創造論者は、その論理的帰結を認めることはない。すなわち、それらの種が創造によるものなら、何百の、おらく何百万もの創造行為が、いろんな時点で行われたはずだということを。

  1. Elsberry, Wesley R. 1996. Punctuated equilibria.

  1. Darwin, C. 1872. The Origin of Species, 6th Edition. Senate, London.