Kumicitのコンテンツ > 欧州情勢 >欧州評議会の「創造論とIDの危険性についての決議」

創造論とIDの危険性についての決議 (4) 創造論

Doc. 11375
17 September 2007

The dangers of creationism in education



29. These various discoveries and scientific advances concerning evolution led to strong opposition from various so-called “creationist” movements (the word derives from “creation” in the biblical sense of the term).


30. The most intransigent of the supporters of creationism claim that the world was created by God in six days and maintain that the transformist or evolutionist theories that conflict with the Bible, according to which God created each plant or animal species individually, can only be lies. They say that science is wrong because, in the strictest possible sense, the Bible says something else -- which reminds us, incidentally, of the trial of a man called Galileo.


31. This strict creationism is subdivided into two branches, one that categorically rejects the scientific discourse and another, also called “scientific creationism” or “science of creation”, that thinks that the science versus religion conflict is only an illusion.


32. According to “scientific creationism”, the author of creation, as described in the Bible, is always present and intervenes in the various processes that bring about evolution. Within scientific creationism, the debate on the Earth’s age divides the so-called “young-earth creationists” (YECs) from the “old-earth creationists” (OECs). The first apply a literal interpretation of the first eleven chapters of Genesis, while the second group admit that creation may have taken place over a long period and seek to reconcile the scientific data with the story of Genesis.


33. Alongside these different movements that come together under the heading of strict creationism, we also find so-called progressive creationism, which does not totally reject evolution but argues that creation necessarily involved successive divine interventions.


34. Confrontations between creationists and followers of Darwin’s theories took place throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, especially in the United States. In 1925, at the so-called “Monkey Trial”, John Scopes, a teacher in Dayton, Ohio, was convicted for teaching his pupils the theory of evolution. However, as a result of scientific discoveries and advances, especially in the filed of biology, the theory of evolution gradually gained acceptance. In 1968, the United States Supreme Court declared the anti-evolutionist laws in force in several states unconstitutional.

19世紀から20世紀にかけて特に米国で、創造論さhとダーウィン理論の支持者の対立が起きてきた。1925年の、いわゆる「モンキー裁判」では、オハイオ州Daytonの教師John Scopesが生徒に進化論を教えたために有罪判決を下された。しかし、特に生物分野における科学的発見と科学の発見の結果として、進化論は次第に受け入れられていった。1968年には米国法廷が幾つかの州で施行されていた反進化論州法を違憲だと判決した。

35. The last quarter of the 20th century was marked by an appreciable resurgence of creationist ideas. In the light of the setbacks they had sustained against the supporters of the theory of evolution, the creationists tried to adapt, and did so to such an extent that in the current statements of the “neocreationists” references to God and the Bible are, or at least it would appear, totally absent. There is no longer any question of divine creation. The neocreationist movement, which mainly consists of the advocates of “intelligent design”, defends the hypothesis of the intervention of a so-called superior intelligence. Describing it as scientific, the supporters of intelligent design demand that their ideas be taught in biology classes alongside the theory of evolution.


36. However, in 2005 the intelligent design creationists also suffered a setback when the Pennsylvania judge John Jones declared that the teaching of intelligent design in schools violated the constitutional separation of church and state.

しかし、2005年にペンシルヴァニアのJohn Jones裁判官がインテリジェントデザインを学校で教えることは憲法の政教分離原則に違反すると判決し、インテリジェントデザイン創造論者たちは再び挫折した。

37. Nevertheless, creationism (or neocreationism) is still well-developed in the English-speaking countries, especially the United States and Australia. While most curricula in Europe today unashamedly teach evolution as a recognised scientific theory, the same does not apply to the United States. In July 2005, the Pew Research Center conducted a poll that showed that 64% of Americans favoured the teaching of intelligent design alongside the theory of evolution and that 38% would support the total abandonment of the teaching of evolution in publicly owned schools. The American President George W. Bush supports the principle of teaching both intelligent design and the theory of evolution. At the moment, 20 of the 50 American states are facing potential adjustments of their school curricula in favour of intelligent design.

それでも、創造論あるいはネオ創造論は英語を話す国、特に米国とオーストラリアでまだ大きな勢力を保っている。欧州の大部分ではカリキュラムで、今日認められた科学理論として公然と進あ化論を教えているが、米国はそうではない。2005年のPew Research Centerが行った世論調査では、64%の米国人がインテリジェントデザインを進化論とともに教えることを支持し、38%が公立学校での進化論教育の廃止を支持した。米国大統領George W. Bushはインテリジェントデザインと進化論を両方とも教える方針を支持している。現時点で米国50州のうち20州が、インテリジェントデザインを支持するように学校カリキュラムの調整する潜在的可能性に直面している。

Kumicit's Comment

米国の創造論動向および用語についての記述は、あまり正確ではない。"Creation Science"あるいは"Scientific Creationism"は"若い地球の創造論"を指す。Progressive CreationismはDr. Hugh Rossの古い地球の創造論などを指す。

Favor Oppose Don't Know
Teaching creationism along with evolution in public schools 64 26 10
Teaching creationism instead of evolution in public schools 38 49 13

最終更新:2010年01月17日 08:23